From Glyndebourne to Glastonbury: The Impact of British Music Festivals – Emma Webster and George McKay

A new report, written by Emma Webster and George McKay and published online last week, highlights the impact of British music festivals and shows that festivals are now at the heart of the British music industry, forming an essential part of the worlds of rock, classical, folk and jazz. Funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council’s (AHRC) Connected Communities programme, the report is based on a critical literature review of more than 170 books, papers and reports.

The sheer breadth of perspectives about festivals was surprising: from the economic impact of the Edinburgh Festivals to the experience of performers and audiences Gilbert and Sullivan Festival to the impact of a chamber music festival on a bat colony, the literature on festivals highlights the way that they have captured the imaginations of researchers across the world.

The following offers a brief summary of the report – to read the full report and the accompanying annotated bibliography, click here.

  • Economy and charity: Festivals are big business – they have significant direct and indirect economic impacts, although a lack of consensus about the methods for working out just how lucrative festivals are for the local area makes comparison between festivals difficult.
  • Politics and power: The frivolity of festivals sometimes masks deeper issues around race, religion, class, sexuality, and gender – line-ups are often white and male-dominated, for instance – although music festivals have been sites for social and political debate, and sometimes action – the links between CND and jazz festivals in the 1950s, for example, or the role of Glastonbury in raising funds and awareness about political issues.
  • Temporality and transformation: Music festivals allow for intense production and consumption of music over a relatively short period of time in a particular place, and are sites for the intensification of ideas and even behaviour. Motivation for attending music festivals is not purely about the music; other factors may be social – renewing old ties, for example, or (less so) making new ones.
  • Creativity: music and musicians: Performance at particular festivals can enhance musicians’ status and increase the chances of further festival bookings – festivals can act as showcases and platforms for exporting musicians abroad. Festivals can also be sites for musical experimentation and hybridity.
  • Place-making and tourism: Festivals have become ubiquitous within tourism and place marketing campaigns and are vehicles for celebrating, constructing and maintaining national or cultural identity – the flag waving at the Last Night of the Proms constructing a particular notion of Britain, for instance. Music festivals often contribute to a positive image of a locale, both internally to its residents and externally to visitors, and hence attract people to live in the place and tourists to visit.
  • Mediation and discourse: Multiplatform mediation on television, radio, press, and online pushes the festival concept into the national consciousness and exports ideas about and images of Britain and Britishness around the world, as well as being a useful means of audience development.
  • Health and well-being: Festivals are either associated with either well-being and wellness – healing fields and the psychological benefits of being outdoors – or with negative health issues such as over-consumption or injuries; festivals can also put pressure on local health services.
  • Environmental: local and global: Festivals have local and global environmental impacts – locally via a temporary increase in population and in the production of waste, and globally via the increased carbon footprint of touring international artists.

We also examined how academic research has also impacted on festivals – from providing economic impact assessments to providing opportunities for public engagement, research collaboration and debate.

Finally, we made a number of recommendations for further research, because even though there has been an increasing amount of academic interest around festivals and impact from a variety of disciplines, there are still many gaps within the current literature. Perhaps surprisingly, there appears to be more work on the impact of festivals within the folk and pop literature (rock, jazz, ‘world’, etc.) than from the classical/opera literature, the latter of which has traditionally been concerned with musical works and composers rather than concerts and performances. Also, there is a relative lack of literature about the impact of festivals on musicians, both in terms of the impact on how they tour but also the creative and economic impact of festivals.

We hope that the report will be useful to other people studying festivals but also to the festival community and to policy-makers as a means of showing the impact of British music festivals, economically, socially and culturally at local and international levels.

This blog post was first published on the Impact of Festivals project website here.


The impact of jazz festivals – top three articles (so far) – Emma Webster

Radcliffe Camera, Bodleian Library, University of Oford
Radcliffe Camera, Bodleian Library, University of Oxford © Sabrina Chap 2013

One of the pleasures of this project has been that it has enabled me to read (and sometimes re-read) literature about festivals – and spending a day in the Radcliffe Camera at the Bodleian Library in Oxford whilst doing so is not such a shabby way to spend a day.

The following is my Buzzfeed style list about my favourite three articles (so far) about jazz festivals, which I highly recommend for anyone interested in jazz, festivals, or jazz festivals! Continue reading The impact of jazz festivals – top three articles (so far) – Emma Webster

Festivals as sites for discovering (and sharing) new music – Emma Webster

For Christmas this year, I was given some new CDs. So what, you may ask? The difference this year is that it’s usually my husband asking for new CDs while I stick to what’s already on my iPod (not that surprising considering that musical listening habits change throughout adulthood). This year, however, I had asked for CDs from artists I’d heard at the EFG London Jazz Festival 2015 and have been listening to them on repeat ever since. Today’s blog, then, is about festivals as sites for sharing and sharing new music with family and friends, both on- and off-site. Continue reading Festivals as sites for discovering (and sharing) new music – Emma Webster

The Impact of Festivals project – thoughts on the form and function of our report for the AHRC – Emma Webster

The Impact of Festivals project will generate two outputs: a report for the AHRC on the impact of festivals, based on a literature review and interviews with audience members and festival directors, and a critical history of the London Jazz Festival, which will be published as a book in 2017 as part of the Festival’s 25th anniversary.

Since the end of the London Jazz Festival back in November, I have been working on the literature review, which has thrown up a number of interesting questions and challenges. Continue reading The Impact of Festivals project – thoughts on the form and function of our report for the AHRC – Emma Webster

Timeline of festival culture 1950-present

The history of festivals in Britain (and beyond) is rich in history – from the Festival of Britain in 1951 to the riot of Beaulieu Jazz Festival in 1960, and the epochal Woodstock Festival in 1969 through to Jay-Z headlining Glastonbury Festival in 2008, festival culture now appears firmly embedded in mainstream culture.

The timeline presented here comes from a variety of sources, the genesis being Professor George McKay’s 2000 book Glastonbury: A Very English Fair, in which, as George says, ‘There is a certain randomness to this [timeline], both in terms of where it starts and what it includes, and a certain bias in its focus around popular music and left politics, either traditionally organised or lifestyle. Why not add your own entries, too?’

The history of festivals is still very much being written – do get in touch if you feel that we have missed out a festival of significance so that the history of festivals continues to grow.

Click here for festival timeline.

The Streets – unexpected musical happenings on Leyton High Street – Emma Webster

The Streets is a project devised by EFG London Jazz Festival (LJF) producer, Serious, to ‘showcase the local streetscape and unlock the potential of high streets’ with the aims of spectacle, discovery, and participation. The first phase of the project started in July 2015 and consisted of a series of events across seven boroughs (Waltham Forest, Redbridge, Greenwich, Croydon, Wandsworth, Richmond upon Thames and Kingston upon Thames). As Serious co-Director Claire Whitaker said to a group of students about the event: ‘The sun came out, people spent money in shops; the project was a success’. The second phase coincided with the LJF in November 2015, a deliberate ploy which allowed the organisers to take advantage of the increased number of touring musicians in the city and increased opportunities for the musicians to earn money and build an audience. Continue reading The Streets – unexpected musical happenings on Leyton High Street – Emma Webster

London on crutches – thoughts on the (in)accessibility of festivals – Emma Webster

Back at the beginning of October I tore my calf muscle playing badminton – I have been on crutches ever since, although my leg is getting stronger daily. Whilst at no point wishing to suggest that I could understand what it is like to be chronically disabled, it has given me a small insight into mobility issues at festival about which I was previously less cognisant.

The EFG London Jazz Festival (LFJ) is predominantly venue-based – some of the fringe Streets events take place in the open air, but most, if not all, of the LJF events are indoors and most are seated. One of the things audience members have told me is that they like the variety of the Festival, in that it spans some of the largest venues in London to some of the smallest. While the larger, Arts Council-funded venues have to have an equality action plan, smaller venues do not generally have to abide by such rules and hence accessibility, or the lack thereof, may be an issue. Continue reading London on crutches – thoughts on the (in)accessibility of festivals – Emma Webster